In the 2008 AECT, the definition that Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.The new definition focuses on the notion that the instructional interventions created by professionals in field and the goal of the field is to improve learning and performance.(Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 2008).
The definition of instructional technology is that a process of solving educational problems and concerns, also, make it convenient through using technological methodologies. Human civilization and technology demand are the key driving forces of the evolution. In the past years, educator focus on the areas of instructional media, such as computers, DVDS and the other types of software associate with the instructional media. Now, performance improvement lead to the educators focus on the areas of instructional design and technology.
In my opinion, I believe that educational technology is the best label in the field, which defined as “Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources”. Because the sophisticated technology will be easy to combine between the education and technology. According to Saettler (1990) that “the media born of the communication revolution which can be used for instructional purposes.”
Early definitions of the field of instructional technology focused on instructional media, also focused on the instructional media that were being produced by professionals in the field. In addition, the early definition indicated that instructional technology was a process for systematically designing instruction and the subject of the instructional technology was to bring more effective instruction.
During the World War II, many educators who had training and experience in conducting experimental research were asked to conduct and develop training materials for the military. Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, John Flanagan, and others were influenced by the characteristics of the training materials that were developed.
After the World War II, the psychologists who were responsible for the success of the military program continued to work on solving instructional problems; therefore, American Institutes for research were established for this purpose. Then, psychologists started viewing training as a system and they developed lots of innovative analysis design and evaluation procedures. For example, Miller developed a detailed task analysis methodology while he worked on projects for the military (Miller, 1953 & 1962).
Behaviorism: 1938-B.F. Skinner introduces the Behavioral Learning Theory. This theory focus on learning can be understand, explained and predicated entirely rely on observable events. (Skinner, 1954). In early instructional technology, this theory not only influence conceptions of instructional feedback, but also influence behavioral objectives and practice of instruction.
Cognitivism: 1971 - Allan Pivio hypothesized a theory of cognition. Cognitivism theory focus on information and knowledge be received, transformed, and stored for recall and use in individual mind. Compare with behavioral theory, cognitivism theory more pay attention to what happened in the learner’s mind.
Constructivism: This theory focus on learner gain the knowledge through individual study experience and interactions with world.
Several developments have an important influence on the field of instructional technology. One of developments is the improving use of the Internet as a means of presenting instructions to students. As a result, there was a significant growth in the online learning, in business, and in the military. This situation will provide more and more job opportunities in the instructional technology to identify interesting and effective means of delivering instruction online.
In modern society, technology could advance the development of traditional education. In fact, students carry backpacks over-filled with books, papers and electronic devices such as IPads and phones have become a commonplace sight in primary, middle, and high schools across the country, as they carry their work with them (Katz et al., 2012). Those situations are effectively evidence to evident technology plays an important role in our learning process.
According to understanding of ETEC500, I learned many definitions of the instructional technology. I also learned the instructional technology labels in the field. Moreover, I learned some information about instructional technology history. I also learned characteristic of foundation instructional design models.
All of them help me gain the instructional technology definitions, and all knowledge will be useful to me. For example, I learned to create five hand coded html pages for my e-Portfolio including Home, Foundation, Design, Research, and Technology, also, I learned to build a navigation links to my other pages. For me, it is so excited that I can become a new designer through using HTML in this program, even though I never study coding before.
Saettler, P. (1990). The evolution of American educational technology. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Skinner, B.F. (1954).The science of learning and the art of teaching. Harvard Educational Review, 24, 86-97.
Katz, I., Buzukashvili, T., & Feingold, L. (2012).Homework stress: Construct validation of a measure. Journal of Experimental Education, 80, 405–421.
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